There are two menisci inside the knee. Both are located between the tibia and the femur. The medial meniscus is C-shaped located inside and extremely close to the knee. The lateral meniscus is U-shaped and located on the outer side of the knee.
Functionally, the menisci act as shock absorbers – the forces are spread out across the joint.
Walking and running put two times and eight times of body weight on the knee respectively – the back of the menisci takes the greatest amount of pressure when the knee bends
The menisci also protect the articular cartilage from taking too much pressure
The surface of the shinbone is converted into a socket to stabilize the flat surface
Causes for meniscal injuries:
Meniscal injuries are related to sports activity at younger ages and degeneration at ages older than 30.
Intermittent pain along the joint line
Complaints of catching, locking or a sensation of giving away are noticed
Delayed swelling – recurrent effusions are a characteristic typical to degenerative tears
Physical examination reveals tenderness to the joint line, effusion and a diminished range of motion
McMurray test – observing reproducible click
Steinmann test – observation of an asymmetric pain with internal or external rotation
Thessaly test – locking and catching sensation observed and the lateral and medial joint line
Apley test – medial and lateral joint pain
MRI – examining and establishing intra-articular disorders and all meniscal pathology
Arthrography – along with magnetic resonance imaging